Role of Vitamin C

  • Potent antioxidant1

  • Decrease susceptibility to viral respiratory infections and pneumonia1

  • Reduce the severity and duration of symptoms from the common cold, which is caused by rhinoviru2

References:
1. Bauer et al. What is the role of supplementation with ascorbic acid, zinc, vitamin D, or N-acetylcysteine for prevention or treatment of COVID-19? Cleveland Clinic Journal Of Medicine. 2020:1-3.
2. Hemila H et al. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 2013(1).

Role of Vitamin D

  • Has immunomodulatory effects (including inhibition of antigen-presenting cells), antiproliferative effects on T cells.1

  • Modulates expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression (IL-6 and TNF alpha).1

  • Vitamin D supplementation decreased the incidence of acute respiratory infection.2

References:
1. Grant WB et al. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients 2020; 12(4):988.
2. Martineau AR et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ 2017; 356.

Role of Zinc

  • Has a role in antibody and white blood cell production.1

  • Inhibit virus RNA polymerase activity and viral replication.2

  • Deficiency increases pro-inflammatory cytokine (I L-1, I L-6, and TNF alpha) concentrations and decreases the production of antibodies2

References:
1. Bauer et al. What is the role of supplementation with ascorbic acid, zinc, vitamin D, or N-acetylcysteine for prevention or treatment of COVID-19? Cleveland Clinic Journal Of Medicine. 2020:1-3.
2. te Velthuis AJW et al. Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture. PLoS Pathog 2010; 6(11 ).

Role of Copper

  • Regulate the influenza virus life cycle.

  • Copper supplementation: improvement in antioxidant status.

Reference: Jayawardena R et al. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 14 (2020) 367e382

Role of Vitamin A

  • Regulate both cellular and humoral immune responses.

  • Improve antibody response after some vaccines.

Reference: Siddiqui FQ, et al. The role of vitamin A in enhancing humoral immunity produced by anti rabies vaccine. East Mediterr Health J 2001 ;7(4e5): 799e804.

Role of Vitamin E

  • Potent antioxidant and has the ability to modulate host immune functions.

  • Vitamin E deficiency is known to impairs both humoral and cellular immunity

Reference: Moriguchi S, Mu raga M. Vitamin E and immunity. Vitam Horm 2000;59: 305e36.

Role of Selenium

Low selenium status
Poor immune function
Selenium supplementation (higher selenium concentration)
Antiviral effects
  • Has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties

Reference: Moriguchi S, Mu raga M. Vitamin E and immunity. Vitam Horm 2000;59: 305e36.

Role of Magnesium

  • Immunoglobulin synthesis & Immune cell adherence.

  • Antibody-dependent cytolysis.

  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) lymphocyte binding.

Reference: Moriguchi S, Mu raga M. Vitamin E and immunity. Vitam Horm 2000;59: 305e36.