Vitamin D deficiency linked to worse lung function in men
Even in apparently healthy men, vitamin D deficiency may aggravate the risk of worsening lung function, reports a recent Korea study. The study included 68,457 overtly healthy middle-aged Korean adults (mean age, 37.7±6.6 years; 36,759 men). Participants underwent spirometry for the measurement of lung function and were subsequently grouped into quartiles. Serum vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples using a competitive immunoassay.
Serum vitamin D lower in melanoma patients
Serum levels of vitamin D appear to be reduced among patients with melanoma and are associated with thicker melanomas and higher mitotic rates, a recent study has found. The researchers conducted an observational, cross-sectional study including 154 patients (mean age at diagnosis, 59.7±15.5 years; 50.6 percent men) who had been diagnosed with melanoma between 2016 and 2019. Pertinent information, such as vitamin D levels, tumour characteristics, and sociodemographic factors, were retrospectively collected from patient files.
Study points to nutrient deficiency in clinical severe obesity
Clinically severe obese individuals may be prone to nutritional deficiencies, with a large number having suboptimal vitamin D levels, according to a study from Singapore. The deficiencies may also differ by ethnicity. Participants of this prospective, observational study were 577 individuals with clinically severe obesity scheduled to undergo metabolic-bariatric surgery (primary sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass; mean age 40.6 years, 61.2 percent female, 40.6 percent Chinese, mean BMI 42.4 kg/m2) between September 2008 and November 2017.
Low vitamin K status ups risk of all-cause mortality
Low concentrations of circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K) appears to increase the risk of all-cause mortality, but not cardiovascular disease (CVD), suggests a recent study. Individual participant-level data were obtained from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and the Framingham Offspring Study, known cohorts with available measures of fasting circulating phylloquinone and confirmed CVD events and mortality.
Daily dairy intake helps prevent stunting in children
Children regularly consuming dairy products are at a low risk of stunting or overweight, according to data from the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) cohort. Additionally, these children are less likely to have vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency. “This study suggests that dairy, as part of a daily diet, plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status,” the authors said.
Nutrition in the time of COVID-19 pandemic: What to eat, take to bolster immune system
While there is no magic potion or a specific food guaranteed to boost the immune system’s ability to fight a respiratory illness, the general consensus is that consuming a more wholesome diet, administering dietary supplements to at-risk individuals, feeding breast milk to babies, and safe handling of food may help mitigate the risk of COVID-19 and related morbidities.
Vitamin D, autoimmune disease and rheumatoid arthritis
Vitamin D has been reported to influence physiological systems that extend far beyond its established functions in calcium and bone homeostasis. Prominent amongst these are the potent immunomodulatory effects of the active form of Vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3). The nuclear Vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25-(OH)2D3 is expressed by many cells within the immune system and resulting effects include modulation of T cell phenotype to suppress pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cells and promote tolerogenic regulatory T cells.
Reference: Harrison SR, Li D, Jeffery LE, et al. Vitamin D, Autoimmune Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Calcif Tissue Int. 2020;106(1):58-75.
Vitamin D and the intestine: Review and update
The central role of Vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. This article describes the early work that served as the foundation for the initial model of Vitamin D mediated calcium absorption. In addition, other research related to the role of Vitamin D in the intestine, including those which have challenged the traditional model and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins, are reviewed.
Reference: Christakos S, Li S, De La Cruz J, et al. Vitamin D and the intestine: Review and update. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2020;196:105501.
Occurrence of infections in schoolchildren subsequent to supplementation with Vitamin D-calcium or zinc: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Vitamin D and zinc are recognized for their roles in immune-modulation, and their deficiencies are suggested to be important risk factors for childhood infections. This study, therefore, undertook to assess the occurrence of infections in rural Indian schoolchildren, subsequent to daily supplementation with Vitamin D-calcium or zinc for 6 months.
Reference: Mandlik R, Mughal Z, Khadilkar A, et al. Occurrence of infections in schoolchildren subsequent to supplementation with Vitamin D-calcium or zinc: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr Res Pract. 2020;14(2):117-126.